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抗褐飞虱水稻的发现与其抗虫机制的研究
http://tech.QQ.com  2009年04月24日10:58   腾讯科技    我要评论(0)

腾讯科技讯 第60届Intel ISEF英特尔国际科学与工程大奖赛将于2009年5月10日到15日在美国内华达州雷诺市举行,以下是来自中国的参赛项目介绍:

抗褐飞虱水稻的发现与其抗虫机制的研究

华中师范大学第一附属中学 高三年级 孙可 吕思扬 柴皓曦

2006-2007中国大面积爆发褐飞虱虫害。为了解褐飞虱为害的主要方式和寻找并筛选出抗性水稻的品种进行了以下研究:

 对在离体模拟实验中所用封口膜,侵染后的水稻组织切片进行了扫描电镜观察(口针鞘的数据处理)。对8种水稻品种分别放虫,进行水稻品种是否抗虫的观察。对8种水稻品种的幼苗制备,各种水稻的定量放虫,叶鞘结构显微观察的制片。实验研究发现:1褐飞虱的取食部位主要在叶鞘,经实验统计有71.1%的口针最后都穿刺到叶鞘的韧皮部,吸食同化产物危害水稻。2.褐飞虱的确以糖为食,并可感知何处有糖;3.筛选出一个对褐飞虱有明显抗性的品种WH66; 4.经显微观察和组织化学研究发现WH66在被褐飞虱侵染时筛管处迅速产生大量蛋白质,堵塞筛管,阻止同化产物流失,虫害过后,该蛋白又可逐渐降解使维管束恢复运输功能。这种水稻抗褐飞虱的主动防御机制迄今尚未见报道。

以下是英文版:

Discovery of an anti-brown-planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) rice and its wonderful mechanism for repelling the insects

In 2006-2007 planthopper disaster overspread to a large area of China and drew our much concern and curiosity. Thus, we carried out a series of experiments to try to find out how the insects imperil rice and hopefully to find solution to the problem. Our results are summarized as follows: 1. By making sections and SEM observation of leaves, we found that planthoppers imperil rice mainly by sucking the nutrient from its phloem; 2. Our in vitro experiments confirmed that the insects indeed need sugar as food and can sense where is the sugar in plants; 3. Among 8 selected cultivars, by careful quantitative-controlled insect-intrusion test and statistic analysis, we finally confirmed a hybrid rice,WH66, that has strong ability to repel palnthopper; 4. Both microscopic observation and histochemical investigation revealed that WH66 could soon response to insect attack by producing a large quantity of proteins at sieve-tube cells to block the transduction of nutrient. Thus, prevent plants from deep injury by the insect sucking. After the insects were gone, the protein soon digested and normal function of sieve tube was recovered. Such interesting mechanism of plant response to insect invasion has been never reported yet. Our finding offers a new clue for the production and confirmation of new hybrids of anti-planthopper rice in the future.

[责任编辑:brookli]

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