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植物需水的公园水资源与植被配置优化策略
http://tech.QQ.com  2009年04月24日11:04   腾讯科技    我要评论(0)

腾讯科技讯 第60届Intel ISEF英特尔国际科学与工程大奖赛将于2009年5月10日到15日在美国内华达州雷诺市举行,以下是来自中国的参赛项目介绍:

基于植物需水的城市公园水资源与植被配置优化策略——以北京龙潭公园为例

北京汇文中学 李思然

 城市公园植被需水作为城市生态需水的重要组分,对于维持区域水量与供需平衡有着重要的意义,对于缺水的半干旱区等区域更是如此。但由于实际条件下的公园植物需水难以连续、准确测定,且多数公园缺乏高精度气象数据,因此目前公园的灌溉粗放,经验性强。本研究以北京龙潭公园为试验区,探讨园林植物的需水规律,为公园建立精准、实用的灌溉管理模式提供支持。

 本研究首先应用Licor6400便携式光合作用测定系统,在实测7种北京常见园林植物(含乔木、灌木、水生植物)在2008年6-9月的蒸腾日进程及气象参数的基础上,尝试建立以气象因子模拟供试植物蒸腾量的数学模型。模型的形式包括以单一气象因素或多气象因素模拟月尺度或季尺度蒸腾量。

 然后,本项目分别基于农业气象原理与统计分析,提出两种应用普通气象数据,将实测蒸腾速率由瞬时水平修正到月平均水平的方法。该方法在对白洋淀2006年5-10月芦苇需水量的计算中较Priestley-Taylor, Hargreaves, Jensen-Haise公式更接近FAO标准的Penman-Monteith公式的计算结果。

 最后,结合叶面积与研究区资料,在种群和群体尺度计算供试植物需水,为筛选节水型植物提供依据;并计算研究区6-9月植物需水,提出针对该公园的灌溉水资源时空分配方案。

 本研究希望能对缺水地区的城市公园高效利用灌溉水资源,进行节水型植被建设具有一定意义。 

以下是英文版:

How Much Water Do the Plants “Drink”: Proposing a Real-time and Accurate Pattern for the Water-saving Irrigational Management in Urban Parks of the Semi-arid Areas

Botanic Water Requirement (BWR) of the urban park vegetations, as an important component of Urban Eco-environmental Water Requirement (UEEWR), bears great significance to maintaining the balance of water demand and supply especially in semi-arid areas. However, the irrigation of urban parks is mostly extensive and empirical, due to the inconsistent and inaccurate measurement of BWR under practical circumstances, and the lack of precise weather data. Taking Beijing Longtan Park as the experimental site, this project researched the BWR regularities of urban parks, to provide a support to the establishment of an accurate and easy-to-operate irrigation management pattern.

 Models to simulate the monthly or seasonal transpiration values with meteorological data (air temperature, humidity and radiation) were formulated based on the measurement of diurnal transpiration rates of seven common plants in Beijing (including trees, shrubs and aquatic plants) from June to September of 2008, with Licor 6400 Portable Photosynthesis Measurement System.

 Then, two methods to upscale the transpiration value from the immediate to the monthly level with common meteorological data were proposed, respectively based on agro-meteorological principles and statistical analysis. The upscaling methods were tentatively tested by calculating the BWR of reeds in Baiyangdian Lake from May to October of 2006. They give closer results to Penman-Monteith Formulae (FAO56 Standard) than do Priestley-Taylor, Hargreaves and Jensen-Haise Equations.

 Lastly, with the leaf area data, the BWR on species and community scales was calculated, focusing on selecting water-saving horticultural plants and determining the temporal and spatial irrigation amounts of the experimental site.

 It is hopeful that this research may bear certain meanings to the efficient and water-saving irrigation of the urban parks in semi-arid areas.

[责任编辑:brookli]

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